New York Seller’s Disclosure Law


Real Property – Seller’s Disclosures – New York

Sec.460. Short title.
461. Definitions.
462. Property condition disclosure statement.
463. Exemptions.
464. Revision.
465. Remedy.
466. Duty of an agent.
467. Liability.

S 460. Short title. This article shall be known and may be cited as the “property condition disclosure act”.

S 461. Definitions. As used in this article, the following terms shall have the following meanings:

1. “Agent” means a person who is licensed as a real estate broker or a real estate salesperson pursuant to section four hundred forty-a of this chapter and is acting in a fiduciary capacity.

2. “Binding contract of sale” means a real estate purchase contract or offer that would, upon signing by the seller and subject to satisfaction of any contingencies, require the buyer to accept a transfer of title.

3. “Knowledge” means only actual knowledge of a defect or condition on the part of the seller of residential real property.

4. “Real estate purchase contract” means any of the following:

(a) a contract which provides for the purchase and sale or exchange of residential real property;
(b) a lease with an option to purchase residential real property;
(c) a lease-with-obligation-to-purchase agreement for residential real property; or
(d) an installment land sale contract for residential real property.

5. “Residential real property” means real property improved by a one to four family dwelling used or occupied, or intended to be used or occupied, wholly or partly, as the home or residence of one or more persons, but shall not refer to (a) unimproved real property upon which such dwellings are to be constructed, or (b) condominium units or cooperative apartments, or (c) property in a homeowners` association that is not owned in fee simple by the seller.

6. “Transfer of title” means delivery of a properly executed instrument conveying title to residential real property and shall include delivery of a real estate purchase contract that is a lease or installment land sale contract.

S 462. Property condition disclosure statement.

1. Except as is provided in section four hundred sixty-three of this article, every seller of residential real property pursuant to a real estate purchase contract shall complete and sign a property condition disclosure statement as prescribed by subdivision two of this section and cause it, or a copy thereof, to be delivered to a buyer or buyer`s agent prior to the signing by the buyer of a binding contract of sale. A copy of the property condition disclosure statement containing the signatures of both seller and buyer shall be attached to the real estate purchase contract. Nothing contained in this article or this disclosure statement is intended to prevent the parties to a contract of sale from entering into agreements of any kind or nature with respect to the physical condition of the property to be sold, including, but not limited to, agreements for the sale of real property “as is”.

2. The following shall be the disclosure form: [See USLF form NY-37014]

S 463. Exemptions. A property condition disclosure statement shall not be required in connection with any of the following transfers of residential real property:

1. A transfer pursuant to a court order, including, but not limited to, a transfer order by a probate court during the administration of a decedent`s estate, a transfer pursuant to a writ of execution, a transfer by a trustee in bankruptcy or debtor-in-possession, a transfer as a result of the exercise of the power of eminent domain, and a transfer that results from a decree for specific performance of a contract or other agreement between two or more persons;

2. A transfer to mortgagee or an affiliate or agent thereof by a mort gagor by deed in lieu of foreclosure or in satisfaction of the mortgage debt;

3. A transfer to a beneficiary of a deed of trust;

4. A transfer pursuant to a foreclosure sale that follows a default in the satisfaction of an obligation that is secured by a mortgage;

5. A transfer by a sale under a power of sale that follows a default in the satisfaction of an obligation that is secured by a mortgage;

6. A transfer by a mortgagee, or a beneficiary under a mortgage, or an affiliate or agent thereof, who has acquired the residential real property at a sale under a mortgage or who has acquired the residential real property by a deed in lieu of foreclosure;

7. A transfer by a fiduciary in the course of the administration of a descendent`s estate, a guardianship, a conservatorship, or a trust;

8. A transfer from one co-owner to one or more other co-owners;

9. A transfer made to the transferor`s spouse or to one or more persons in the lineal consanguinity of one or more of the transferors;

10. A transfer between spouses or former spouses as a result of a decree of divorce, dissolution of marriage, annulment, or legal separation or as a result of property settlement, agreement incidental to a decree of divorce, dissolution of marriage, annulment or legal separation;

11. A transfer to or from the state, a political subdivision of the state, or another governmental entity;

12. A transfer that involves newly constructed residential real property that previously had not been inhabited;

13. A transfer by a sheriff; or

14. A transfer pursuant to a partition action.

S 464. Revision. If a seller of residential real property acquires knowledge which renders materially inaccurate a property condition disclosure statement provided previously, the seller shall deliver a revised property condition disclosure statement to the buyer as soon as practicable. In no event, however, shall a seller be required to provide a revised property condition disclosure statement after the transfer of title from the seller to the buyer or occupancy by the buyer, whichever is earlier.

S 465. Remedy.

1. In the event a seller fails to perform the duty prescribed in this article to deliver a disclosure statement prior to the signing by the buyer of a binding contract of sale, the buyer shall receive upon the transfer of title a credit of five hundred dollars against the agreed upon purchase price of the residential real property.

2. Any seller who provides a property condition disclosure statement or provides or fails to provide a revised property condition disclosure statement shall be liable only for a willful failure to perform the requirements of this article. For such a willful failure, the seller shall be liable for the actual damages suffered by the buyer in addition to any other existing equitable or statutory remedy.

S 466. Duty of an agent. An agent representing a seller of residential real property as a listing broker shall have the duty to timely inform each seller represented by that agent of the seller`s obligations under this article. An agent representing a buyer of residential real property, or, if the buyer is not represented by an agent, the agent representing a seller of residential real property and dealing with a prospective buyer, shall have the duty to timely (in any event, before the buyer signs a binding contract of sale) inform such buyer of the buyer`s rights and obligations under this article. If an agent performs the duties and obligations imposed upon him or her pursuant to this section, the agent shall have no further duties under this article and shall not be liable to any party for a violation of this article.

S 467. Liability. Nothing contained in this article shall be construed as limiting any existing legal cause of action or remedy at law, in statute or in equity.